While voltage references based on LMx99 or LTZ1000CH and LTZ1000ACH are common and lot’s of information about them is available, there is less knowledge on how to setup a voltage references based on the Motorola SZA263 and the Fluke LTFLU fabricated by Linear Technology.
However, there are reference modules and voltage references available from time to time. Even though noone can say for sure if they are fakes or real world parts, sort out with bad specification or gray market production.
A teardown of both parts revealed, that SZA263 is a two chip construction in one TO-package with separate silicon and zener diode, while LTFLU is a one chip design, both connected as a refamp with collector, base, emitter of the zener and anode of the silicon diode [EEV01].
Different to LTZ which needs a separate stage to boost the zener voltage to 10V, the boost of the output on these refamps is part of the zener circuit itself, realized in a bootstrap fashion. However, a 10V output requires an individually trimmed voltage divider for each device from the output to the base of the refamp. As found earlier the TC(Thermal Coefficient) of this divider is rather critical, as it is only dampened by a factor of ~3, while all other resistors of the circuit are less critical and their TC(Thermal Coefficient) is dampened by a factor of 150 … 500 [EEV02].
The typical zener current is IZ=3mA, with the zener voltage varying between VC=6.8V … 7V. Operation of this refamp based voltage reference without an oven but somewhat optimized value for R13 can lead to a temperature behavior of < 1ppm/K over 10..45°C, with a parabolic shape of the TC(Thermal Coefficient) curve. However, for best performance the refamp should be ovenized to achieve 0ppm/K. To set the zero TC(Thermal Coefficient) for a given temperature the value of R13 needs to be determined, while the range for the current through it is IC=20 … 200µA.
This article addresses the findings so far, even though no datasheet is available. Fortunately, circuit diagramms of a lot of Fluke gear can be found using these refamps, which gives a point to start with.
Figure 1: LTFLU circuit
The goal is to build a battery powered, ovenized single supply 10V voltage reference based on LTFLU1-CH, similar to LTZ1047B designed by Andreas Jahn, a LTZ1000 based portable voltage reference. The oven is planed to use a ceramic or aluminium core substrate mounted on a thickfilm resistor. Preregulation shall be done by LDO LT1763 supplied by a battery pack of 12× 1,2V Eneloop, a total of 14,4V. Based on circuits available a schematic as shown in Figure1 was designed. Therefore a single supply opamp LT1006 (or OPA189, ADA4522-1) comes into play. As for the critical resistor divider R7A/B a NOMCA16035001 is used with additional resistors (R1 and R2) being integrated into the divider to trimm the output voltage to 10,000 00V and to reduce their influence.
The oven temperature is planed to be +45…+50 °C, which should be enough headroom even in summer. A NTC mounted to the reference board serves as a temperature sensor for the oven. NCP15 series by Murata is said to have good longterm stability, thus it is used here. Zero TC(Thermal Coefficient) temperature has to be found within the desired temperature range by adjusting R13 respectively. To do so a breadboard was used with R7A/B pretrimmed for a nominal 10V output voltage by arranging the NOMCA resistor network to R7A=5kΩ and R7B=11kΩ. This is necessary, as the output voltage also influences the current through a given R13.
Measurements of temperature profile inside a temperature chamber while varying R13 with a decade resistor box gave the following values for the zero TC(Thermal Coefficient) temperature:
|R13||25.343 kΩ||~30 °C|
|R13||24 kΩ||~35 °C|
Zero TC(Thermal Coefficient) point is the middle highest point of the flipped parabolic shaped curve, when plotting output voltage over temperature. Assuming a linear correlation between IC and zero TC(Thermal Coefficient) temperature point a value of about 22kΩ for a temperature setpoint of 45°C can be calculated. A repeated temperature profile well agreed with the assumptions, the zero TC(Thermal Coefficient) point is well within 45 … 50°C. Based on this results a reference board was designed as shown in Figure2. It‘s 20 × 40 mm² in size. The LTFLU is soldered in a SMT style to the board and the output is realized as a 4 wire connection.
Figure 2: LTFLU reference board
Several temperature profiles were performed with R13 = 22 kΩ and by varying the additional resistors R1 and R2, giving the following results.
Figure 3: LTFLU Temperature profile 1
Figure 4: Temperature profile 2
Figure 5: Temperature profile 3
|Profile 1||Profile 2||Profile 3|
|R7A||5 kΩ||5k Ω||5 kΩ|
|R7B||10.9091 kΩ||11 kΩ||11.0651 kΩ|
|Voltage @ zero TC(Thermal Coefficient)||10.061870 V||10.035500 V||10.016960 V|
With the values given one can calculate the required ratio of 0.4494 as well as the required resistors to trim the output to 10.00000V. It turns out that for this specimen R1 = 6.2 kΩ trims the output to the required range, while R2 = 0…10 Ω adjusts the output to the final value.
Figure 5: Temperature profile 4
Figure 5: Temperature profile 5
To be continued …